Course Title: Chemistry, Grade 12, University Preparation
Course Name: Chemistry
Course Code: SCH4U
Course Type: University Preparation
Credit Value: 1.0
Prerequisite: SCH3U Chemistry Grade 11, University Preparation
Curriculum Policy Document: Science, The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 11 and 12, 2008 (Revised)
Course Developer: Queen’s International Collegiate
Department Head: Mr. Kevin Zhu
Developed Date: 2018
Most Recent Revised Date: 2020
Chemistry 12 – SCH4U course enables students to deepen their understanding of chemistry through the study of organic chemistry, the structure and properties of matter, energy changes and rates of reaction, equilibrium in chemical systems, and electrochemistry. Students will further develop their problem-solving and investigation skills as they investigate chemical processes, and will refine their ability to communicate scientific information. Emphasis will be placed on the importance of chemistry in everyday life and on evaluating the impact of chemical technology on the environment.
|Unit||Course Content and Overall Curriculum Expectations||Time|
Students will discover trends and formulate rules about bonds and their physical properties. Students will diagnose the polarity of bonds by analyzing how unevenly electrons are shared between atoms. Students will construct models that show the relationship of atoms and electrons with the use Lewis structures.
Students will demonstrate an understanding of how the predictable chemical and physical properties of organic compounds are determined by their respective structures. They will also assess the significant implications of organic chemical reactions and their applications for society, human health, and the environment.
|3||Energy Changes and Rates of Reaction|
Students will demonstrate an understanding of how energy changes and rates of reaction can be described quantitatively. They will investigate ways to improve the efficiency of chemical reactions by applying optimal conditions. Students will also evaluate the societal and environmental costs and benefits of technologies that transform energy.
|4||Chemical Systems and Equilibrium|
Students will demonstrate an understanding of the predictable ways in which chemical systems are dynamic and respond to changing conditions. They will also assess the significant implications for nature and industry of applying chemical systems at equilibrium.
Students will learn that an atom or molecule is oxidized if it loses electrons and is reduced if it gains electrons. In other words when an atom or molecule is oxidized in a chemical reaction, another atom or molecule must be reduced.
Students will learn to predict if a redox reaction will be spontaneous via oxidation-reduction tables
Students should define the following key terms within their notes. Key terms : Ionic equation, net ionic equation, oxidation, oxidation reduction reaction, oxidizing agent, redox reaction, reducing agent, reduction, spectator ions.
|6||Final Exam||2 hours|
|A. Scientific Investigation Skills and Career Exploration|
|A1||demonstrate scientific investigation skills (related to both inquiry and research) in the four areas of skills (initiating and planning, performing and recording, analysing and interpreting, and communicating);|
|A2||identify and describe a variety of careers related to the fields of science under study, and identify scientists, including Canadians, who have made contributions to those fields.|
|B. Organic Chemistry|
|B1||assess the social and environmental impact of organic compounds used in everyday life, and propose a course of action to reduce the use of compounds that are harmful to human health and the environment;|
|B2||investigate organic compounds and organic chemical reactions, and use various methods to represent the compounds;|
|B3||demonstrate an understanding of the structure, properties, and chemical behaviour of compounds within each class of organic compounds.|
|C. Structure and Properties of Matter|
|C1||assess the benefits to society and evaluate the environmental impact of products and technologies that apply principles related to the structure and properties of matter;|
|C2||investigate the molecular shapes and physical properties of various types of matter;|
|C3||demonstrate an understanding of atomic structure and chemical bonding, and how they relate to the physical properties of ionic, molecular, covalent network, and metallic substances.|
|D. Energy Changes and Rates of Reaction|
|D1||analyse technologies and chemical processes that are based on energy changes, and evaluate them in terms of their efficiency and their effects on the environment;|
|D2||investigate and analyse energy changes and rates of reaction in physical and chemical processes, and solve related problems;|
|D3||demonstrate an understanding of energy changes and rates of reaction.|
|E. Chemical Systems and Equilibrium|
|E1||analyse chemical equilibrium processes, and assess their impact on biological, biochemical, and technological systems;|
|E2||investigate the qualitative and quantitative nature of chemical systems at equilibrium, and solve related problems;|
|E3||demonstrate an understanding of the concept of dynamic equilibrium and the variables that cause shifts in the equilibrium of chemical systems.|
|F1||analyse technologies and processes relating to electrochemistry, and their implications for society, health and safety, and the environment;|
|F2||investigate oxidation-reduction reactions using a galvanic cell, and analyse electrochemical reactions in qualitative and quantitative terms;|
|F3||demonstrate an understanding of the principles of oxidation-reduction reactions and the many practical applications of electrochemistry.|
As in a conventional classroom, instructors employ a range of strategies for teaching a course:
- Clear writing that connects mathematics to relevant situational problems
- Examples of full solutions in various contexts and opportunities to practice
- Direct instruction and coaching on student work by the teacher
In addition, teachers and students have at their disposal a number of tools that are unique to electronic learning environments:
- Electronic simulation activities
- Video presentations
- Discussion boards and email
- Assessments with real-time feedback
- Interactive activities that engage both the student and teacher in the subject
- Peer review and assessment
- Internet Instructional Videos
All course material is online, no textbook is required. Assignments are submitted electronically. Tests are completed online at a time convenient for the student, and the course ends in a final exam which the student writes under the supervision of a proctor approved by Queen’s International Collegiate at a predetermined time and place. The final mark and report card are then forwarded to the student’s home school.
Students must achieve the Ministry of Education learning expectations of a course and complete 110 hours of planned learning activities, both online and offline, in order to earn a course credit. Students must keep a learning log throughout their course which outlines the activities they have completed and their total learning hours. This log must be submitted before the final exam can be written.
The chart below indicates some general examples of online and offline activities.
|Online Learning Activities||Offline Learning Activities|
|Watching instructional videos||Reading materials for course|
|Watching additional resources videos||Studying instructional material|
|Completing online timed assignments||Practicing skills|
|Contributing to Forums||Completing assignments|
|Uploading video presentations||Completing essays|
|Communicating with instructor||Preparing presentations|
|Participating in live conferences||Reviewing for tests and exams|
|Practicing through online quizzes||Researching topics on internet|
|Reviewing peer submissions|
|Assessing peer presentations|
|Completing online timed exam|
Students are expected to access and participate actively in course work and course forums on a regular and frequent basis. This interaction with other students is a major component of this course and there are minimum requirements for student communication and contribution.
Seven mathematical processes will form the heart of the teaching and learning strategies used.
- Communicating: To improve student success there will be several opportunities for students to share their understanding both in oral as well as written form.
- Problem solving: Scaffolding of knowledge, detecting patterns, making and justifying conjectures, guiding students as they apply their chosen strategy, directing students to use multiple strategies to solve the same problem, when appropriate, recognizing, encouraging, and applauding perseverance, discussing the relative merits of different strategies for specific types of problems.
- Reasoning and proving: Asking questions that get students to hypothesize, providing students with one or more numerical examples that parallel these with the generalization and describing their thinking in more detail.
- Reflecting: Modeling the reflective process, asking students how they know.
- Selecting Tools and Computational Strategies: Modeling the use of tools and having students use technology to help solve problems.
- Connecting: Activating prior knowledge when introducing a new concept in order to make a smooth connection between previous learning and new concepts, and introducing skills in context to make connections between particular manipulations and problems that require them.
- Representing: Modeling various ways to demonstrate understanding, posing questions that require students to use different representations as they are working at each level of conceptual development – concrete, visual or symbolic, allowing individual students the time they need to solidify their understanding at each conceptual stage.
The primary purpose of assessment and evaluation is to improve student learning. Information gathered through assessment helps teachers to determine students’ strengths and weaknesses in their achievement of the curriculum expectations in each course. This information also serves to guide teachers in adapting curriculum and instructional approaches to students’ needs and in assessing the overall effectiveness of programs and classroom practices. As part of assessment, teachers provide students with descriptive feedback that guides their efforts towards improvement.
Evaluation refers to the process of judging the quality of student work on the basis of established criteria, and assigning a value to represent that quality. All curriculum expectations must be accounted for in instruction, but evaluation focuses on students’ achievement of the overall expectations. A students’ achievement of the overall expectations is evaluated on the basis of his or her achievement of related specific expectations. Teachers will use their professional judgement to determine which specific expectations should be used to evaluate achievement of overall expectations, and which ones will be covered in instruction and assessment but not necessarily evaluated.
In order to ensure that assessment and evaluation are valid and reliable, and that they lead to the improvement of student learning, teachers must use assessment and evaluation strategies that:
- Address both what students learn and how well they learn;
- Are based both on the categories of knowledge and skills and on the achievement level descriptions given in the achievement chart
- Are varied in nature, administered over a period of time, and designed to provide opportunities for students to demonstrate the full range of their learning;
- Are appropriate for the learning activities used, the purposes of instruction, and the needs and experiences of the students;
- Are fair to all students;
- Accommodate students with special education needs, consistent with the strategies outlined in their Individual Education Plan;
- Accommodate the needs of students who are learning the language of instruction;
- Ensure that each student is given clear directions for improvement;
- Promote students’ ability to assess their own learning and to set specific goals
- Include the use of samples of students’ work that provide evidence of their achievement;
- Are communicated clearly to students and parents at the beginning of the school year and at other appropriate points throughout the school year.
The achievement chart for science outlines four categories of knowledge and skills. They include; knowledge and understanding, thinking and investigation, communication and application. Teachers will ensure that student work is assessed and/or evaluated in a balanced manner with respect to the four categories, and that achievement of particular expectations is considered within the appropriate categories.
A final grade is recorded for this course, and a credit is granted and recorded for this course if the student’s grade is 50% or higher. The final grade for this course will be determined as follows:
- 70% of the grade will be based on evaluations conducted throughout the course. This portion of the grade should reflect the student’s most consistent level of achievement throughout the course, although special consideration should be given to more recent evidence of achievement.
- The final 30% will be broken up into 20% final exam and 10% Final Summative Presentation , which will be administered towards the end of the course.
Student achievement will be communicated formally to students via an official report card. Report cards are issued at the midterm point in the course, as well as upon completion of the course. Each report card will focus on two distinct, but related aspects of student achievement. First, the achievement of curriculum expectations is reported as a percentage grade. Additionally, the course median is reported as a percentage. The teacher will also provide written comments concerning the student’s strengths, areas for improvement, and next steps. Second, the learning skills are reported as a letter grade, representing one of four levels of accomplishment. The report card also indicates whether an OSSD credit has been earned. Upon completion of a course, QIC will send a copy of the report card back to the student’s home school (if in Ontario) where the course will be added to the ongoing list of courses on the student’s Ontario Student Transcript. The report card will also be sent to the student’s home address.
Teachers who are planning a program in this subject will make an effort to take into account considerations for program planning that align with the Ontario Ministry of Education policy and initiatives in a number of important areas:
- Education for students with special education needs
- Environmental education
- Equity and inclusive education
- Financial literacy education
- Ontario First Nations, Metis, and Inuit education
- Role of information and communications technology
- English language learners
- Career education
- Cooperative education and other workplace experiences
- Health and safety
1. Education for Students with Special Education Needs:
Queen’s International Collegiate is committed to ensuring that all students are provided with the learning opportunities and supports they require to gain the knowledge, skills, and confidence they need to succeed in a rapidly changing society. The context of special education and the provision of special education programs and services for exceptional students in Ontario are constantly evolving. Provisions included in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Ontario Human Rights Code have driven some of these changes. Others have resulted from the evolution and sharing of best practices related to the teaching and assessment of students with special educational needs.
The provision of special education programs and services for students at Queen’s International rests within a legal framework The Education Act and the regulations related to it set out the legal responsibilities pertaining to special education. They provide comprehensive procedures for the identification of exceptional pupils, for the placement of those pupils in educational settings where the special education programs and services appropriate to their needs can be delivered, and for the review of the identification of exceptional pupils and their placement.
Teachers will take into account the needs of exceptional students as set out in the students’ Individual Education Plan. The online courses offer a vast array of opportunities for students with special educations needs to acquire the knowledge and skills required for our evolving society. Students who use alternative techniques for communication may find a venue to use these special skills in these courses. There are a number of technical and learning aids that can assist in meeting the needs of exceptional students as set out in their Individual Education Plan. In the process of taking their online course, students may use a personal amplification system, tela-typewriter (via Bell relay service), an oral or a sign-language interpreter, a scribe, specialized computer programs, time extensions, ability to change font size, oral readers, etc.
2. Environmental Education:
Environmental education teaches students about how the planet’s physical and biological systems work, and how we can create a more sustainable future. Good curriculum design allows environmental issues and topics to be woven in and out of the online course content. This ensures that the student will have opportunities to acquire the knowledge, skills, perspectives and practices needed to become an environmentally literate citizen. The online course should provide opportunities for each student to address environmental issues in their home, in their local community, or even at the global level.
3. Equity and Inclusive Education:
Queen’s International is taking important steps to reduce discrimination and embrace diversity in our online school in order to improve overall student achievement and reduce achievement gaps due to discrimination. The Ontario Equity and Inclusive Education Strategy was launched in April 2009 and states that all members of the Queen’s International community are to be treated with respect and dignity. This strategy is helping Queen’s International educators better identify and remove discriminatory biases and systemic barriers to student achievement. These barriers related to racism, sexism, homophobia and other forms of discrimination may prevent some students from reaching their full potential. The strategy supports the Ministry’s key education priorities of high student achievement, reduced gaps in student achievement and increased accountability and public confidence in Ontario’s schools. Students, regardless of their background or personal circumstances, must be given every opportunity to reach their full potential. Research shows that when students feel welcomed and accepted in their school, they are more likely to succeed academically. Queen’s International desires to create a culture of high expectations where factors such as race, age, gender, sexual orientation and socio-economic status do not prevent students from achieving ambitious outcomes.
4. Financial Literacy Education:
Financial literacy may be defined as having the knowledge and skills needed to make responsible economic and financial decisions with competence and confidence. Since making financial decisions has become an increasingly complex task in the modern world, students need to have knowledge in various areas and a wide range of skills in order to make informed decisions about financial matters. Students need to be aware of risks that accompany various financial choices. They need to develop an understanding of world economic forces as well as ways in which they themselves can respond to those influences and make informed choices. Queen’s International considers it essential that financial literacy be considered an important attribute of a well-educated population. In addition to acquiring knowledge in such specific areas as saving, spending, borrowing, and investing, students need to develop skills in problem solving, inquiry, decision making, critical thinking, and critical literacy related to financial and other issues. The goal is to help students acquire the knowledge and skills that will enable them to understand and respond to complex issues regarding their own personal finances and the finances of their families, as well as to develop an understanding of local and global effects of world economic forces and the social, environmental, and ethical implications of their own choices as consumers. The Ministry of Education and Queen’s International are working to embed financial literacy expectations and opportunities in all courses as appropriate, as part of the ongoing curriculum review process.
5. Ontario First Nations, Metis, and Inuit Education:
First Nation, Metis, and Inuit students in Ontario will need to have the knowledge, skills, and confidence they need to successfully complete their elementary and secondary education in order to pursue postsecondary education or training and/or to enter the workforce. They will need to have the traditional and contemporary knowledge, skills, and attitudes required to be socially contributive, politically active, and economically prosperous citizens of the world. All students in Ontario will need to have knowledge and appreciation of contemporary and traditional First Nation, Metis, and Inuit traditions, cultures, and perspectives. Queen’s International and the Ministry of Education are committed to First Nation, Metis, and Inuit student success. Queen’s International teachers are committed to (1) developing strategies that will increase the capacity of the education system to respond to the learning and cultural needs of First Nation, Metis, and Inuit students; (2) providing quality programs, services, and resources to help create learning opportunities for First Nation, Metis, and Inuit students that support improved academic achievement and identity building; (3) providing a curriculum that facilitates learning about contemporary and traditional First Nation, Metis, and Inuit cultures, histories, and perspectives among all students where possible; and (4) developing and implementing strategies that facilitate increased participation by First Nation, Metis, and Inuit parents, students, communities, and organizations in working to support the academic success of the student.
6. The Role of Information and Communications Technology in the Curriculum.
Information literacy is the ability to access, select, gather, critically evaluate, and create information. Communication literacy refers to the ability to communicate information and to use the information obtained to solve problems and make decisions. Information and communications technologies are utilized by all Queen’s International students when the situation is appropriate within their online course. As a result, students will develop transferable skills through their experience with word processing, internet research, presentation software, and telecommunication tools, as would be expected in any other course or any business environment.
7. English Language Learners:
This Queen’s International online course can provide a wide range of options to address the needs of ESL/ELD students. This online course must be flexible in order to accommodate the needs of students who require instruction in English as a second language or English literacy development. The Queen’s International teacher considers it to be their responsibility to help students develop their ability to use the English language properly. Appropriate modifications to teaching, learning, and evaluation strategies in this course may be made in order to help students gain proficiency in English, since students taking English as a second language at the secondary level have limited time in which to develop this proficiency. This online course can provide a wide range of options to address the needs of ESL/ELD students. Well written content will aid ESL students in mastering not only the content of this course, but as well, the English language and all of its idiosyncrasies. Queen’s International has created course content to enrich the student’s learning experience. In addition, since many occupations in Canada require employees with capabilities in the English language, many students will learn English language skills which can contribute to their success in the larger world.
8. Career Education:
As the online student progresses through their online course, their teacher is available to help the student prepare for employment in a huge number of diverse areas. With the help of their teacher, students will learn to set and achieve goals and will gain experience in making meaningful decisions concerning their career choices. The skills, knowledge and creativity that students acquire through this online course are essential for a wide range of careers. Throughout their secondary school education, students will learn about the educational and career opportunities that are available to them; explore and evaluate a variety of those opportunities; relate what they learn in their courses to potential careers in a variety of fields; and learn to make appropriate educational and career choices.
9. Cooperative Education and Other Workplace Experiences:
By applying the skills they have developed, students will readily connect their classroom learning to real-life activities in the world in which they live. Cooperative education and other workplace experiences will broaden their knowledge of employment opportunities in a wide range of fields. In addition, students will increase their understanding of workplace practices and the nature of the employer-employee relationship. Queen’s International teachers will try to help students link to Ministry programs to ensure that students have information concerning programs and opportunities.
10. Health and Safety:
Although health and safety issues are not usually associated with language education, they may be important when the learning involves fieldwork. Out-of-school fieldwork can provide an exciting and authentic dimension to students’ learning experiences. Teachers must preview and plan these activities carefully to protect students’ health and safety.